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The power generation principle of solar cells components

The power generation principle of solar cells components

December 01, 2023

Solar cell components, also called solar panels and photovoltaic components, are the core part of the solar power generation system and the most important part of the solar power generation system. Their function is to convert solar energy into electrical energy, or to store it in cells, or to drive it. load work.


Solar cell modules are composed of high-efficiency monocrystalline or polycrystalline solar cells, packaging materials (EVA, POE, etc.), functional backsheets, interconnection bars, bus bars, junction boxes and aluminum alloy frames .



The principle of solar cells


The energy converter of solar photovoltaic power generation is solar cells, also known as photovoltaic cells. The principle of solar cell power generation is the photovoltaic effect. When sunlight shines on a solar cell, the cell absorbs light energy and generates photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Under the action of the built-in electric field of the cell, the photo-generated electrons and holes are separated, and there is an accumulation of charges of different signs at both ends of the cell, which generates a "photo-generated voltage". This is the "photovoltaic effect". If electrodes are drawn out on both sides of the built-in electric field and a load is connected, a "photogenerated current" will flow through the load, thereby obtaining power output. In this way, the sun's light energy is directly converted into usable electrical energy.


At the same temperature, the impact of light intensity on solar panels: the greater the light intensity, the greater the open circuit voltage and short circuit current of the solar panel, and the greater the maximum output power. At the same time, it can be seen that the open circuit voltage changes with the irradiation intensity. It is not as obvious as the change of short-circuit current with irradiation intensity.


Under the same light intensity, the effect of temperature on the solar panel: When the temperature of the solar cell increases, its output open-circuit voltage decreases significantly with the temperature, the short-circuit current increases slightly, and the general trend is that the maximum output power becomes smaller



Characteristics of solar cells


Solar cell modules have high photoelectric conversion efficiency and high reliability; advanced diffusion technology ensures uniformity of conversion efficiency throughout the chip; ensures good conductivity, reliable adhesion and good electrode weldability; high precision high flatness make the cell easy to automatically weld and laser cut.


According to the different materials used, solar cells can be divided into: silicon solar cells, multi-compound thin film solar cells, polymer multi-layer modified electrode solar cells, nanocrystalline solar cells, organic solar cells, plastic solar cells, among which silicon solar cells are the most mature and dominate applications.

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